The theories of periodicity, of rhythm, of cycles in history, of recurrent types, mophological stages, or dialectical steps, the notions of historic destiny contiguous progress or inevitable decline are all variants upon the same philosophical mysticism:
the belief that the course of history can be schematized and constructed.
But in reality, there is neither an underlying plan no a logical sense in events. Historical events have ascertainable subjective clauses and are the result of particular aims of persons, but in themselves are accidental and aimless; there are no historical laws in any objective sense.
– Arnold Hauser